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Version 1.11 (Nov 2016)
Version 1.8 (Aug 2016)
Version 1.5 (May 2016)

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Recent Citations

APA Style

If you found Formative Grapher helpful for producing plots for publication, please consider citing the journal article or software below!

Journal Article: Cole, D. M., & Witts, B. N. (2015). Formative graphing with a Microsoft Excel 2013 template. Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice, 15, 171–186.

Software: Cole, D. M. (2017). Formative Grapher (Version 1.11) [Computer software].

Video Tutorial: Cole, D. M. ( (2017, February 20). Getting started with Formative Grapher [Video file]. Retrieved from

Formative Grapher Citations

Kranak, M. P., Shapiro, M. N., Sawyer, M. R., Deochand, N., & Neef, N. A. (2019). Using behavioral skills training to improve graduate students’ graphing skills. Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice.

Berkman, S. J. ,Roscoe, E. M., & Bourret, J. C. (2018). Comparing self‐directed methods for training staff to create graphs using Graphpad Prism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 52(1), 188–204.

Mitteer, D. R., Greer, B. D., Fisher, W. W., & Cohrs, V. L. (2018). Teaching behavior technicians to create publication‐quality, single‐case design graphs in Graphpad Prism 7. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 51(4), 998–1010.

Morris, C. A., Deochand, N., & Peterson, S. M. (2018). Using Microsoft Excel® to Build a Customized Partial-Interval Data Collection System. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 11(4), 504–516.

Runge, T. J., Bennyhoff, C. F., Ferchalk, M. R., & McCrea, A. E. (2017). The Role of Measurement Interval in Rate of Improvement Calculation. School Psychology Forum, 11(3), 77–90.…

Deochand, N. (2017). Automating phase change lines and their labels using Microsoft Excel®. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 10(3), 279–284.

Tyner, B. C. (2016). The effects of descriptions and images of antecedent stimuli and outcomes to correct responses in task analysis instruction. City University of New York. Retrieved from

Deochand, N., Costello, M. S., & Fuqua, R. W. (2016). Chart goals for behavior analysis. Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice, 17(1), 10–13.

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A free application for graphing time-series data in Microsoft Excel 2010 and later, Formative Grapher is designed for consistency with APA Style.

Automated Features

Breaks in data pathsCondition labels & lines
Criterion linesDate–session conversion
Figure captionsFloating y axes
1-click cumulative scales1-click logarithmic scales
Scale breaksTier-stacking & doglegs
Pie charts showing that students graphed more accurately, in less time, and with greater ease with Formative Grapher

Based on Cole and Witts (2015). Top plots aggregate data across two conditions. Bottom plot codes ratings of difficult as 0, moderately difficult as 1, and easy as 2.

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